g_CiOptions in a Virtualized World

With the leaking of code signing certificates and exploits for vulnerable drivers becoming common occurrences, adversaries are adopting the kernel as their new playground. And with Microsoft making technologies like Virtualization Based Security (VBS) and Hypervisor Code Integrity (HVCI) available, I wanted to take some time to understand just how vulnerable endpoints are when faced with an attacker set on escaping to Ring-0.... Read More »


In this post, we'll dig into just how SMB over QUIC works, answer some of the immediate questions around which attacks are feasible, and show how we can repurpose some existing tooling to capture NTLM handshakes.... Read More »

Object Overloading

In this post we are going to look at one such technique that I thought was cool while playing around with the Windows Object Manager, and which should allow us to load an arbitrary DLL of our creation into a Windows process during initial execution, something that I've been calling "Object Overloading" for reasons which will hopefully become apparent in this post.... Read More »

Debugging into .NET

.NET for post-exploitation is here to stay. It has been bundled with most C2 frameworks, common tools have been ported, AMSI has been added (then bypassed) and new and clever ways have been found to launch unmanaged code. The process of loading a .NET assembly however appears to be pretty consistent. We know that tools like Cobalt Strike's execute-assembly have greatly increased the accessibility of loading a .NET assembly from memory, with most attackers using this in one way or another during... Read More »